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Backup & Restore: Postgres, Clickhouse, Kafka, & Redis

Overview

This is the generic solution for backup and restore. Depending on the backup strategy used, the tools might change.

Backing up and restoring Postgres

  • The Ansible script will automatically configure pg_basebackup, pgbackrest, wal-g and other recovery tools. For the sake of simplicity, we can use pg_dump and pg_restore.
  • The following command takes a backup. This will create a compressed tarball backup in the directory mentioned:
pg_dump -h 192.168.0.100 -U postgres -F c remote_db1 > remote_db1.tar
  • This can be scheduled using a cron as shown below:
0 0 * * * <path to backup script>
  • Pg_basebackup is installed along with psql client
sudo apt install postgresql-client
  • You can restore from pg_dump as follows:
pg_restore -h 192.168.0.100 -U postgres -F -C -d db1 < db1.tar

Backing up and restoring Clickhouse

The plan is to use clickhouse-backup, which is open sourced under the liberal MIT license. This tool has the ability to create archived backups and upload them to NFS, S3, GCS, AZBlob, SFTP and other remote data repositories.
tar -zxvf clickhouse-backup.tar.gz
  • Create a configuration file as follows, call it config.ini
general: remote_storage: none # REMOTE_STORAGE, if `none` then `upload` and `download` command will fail max_file_size: 1073741824 # MAX_FILE_SIZE, 1G by default, useless when upload_by_part is true, use for split data parts files by archives disable_progress_bar: true # DISABLE_PROGRESS_BAR, show progress bar during upload and download, have sense only when `upload_concurrency` and `download_concurrency` equal 1 backups_to_keep_local: 0 # BACKUPS_TO_KEEP_LOCAL, how much newest local backup should keep, 0 mean all created backups will keep on local disk # you shall to run `clickhouse-backup delete local <backup_name>` command to avoid useless disk space allocations backups_to_keep_remote: 0 # BACKUPS_TO_KEEP_REMOTE, how much newest backup should keep on remote storage, 0 mean all uploaded backups will keep on remote storage. # if old backup is required for newer incremental backup, then it will don't delete. Be careful with long incremental backup sequences.
log_level: info # LOG_LEVEL allow_empty_backups: false # ALLOW_EMPTY_BACKUPS download_concurrency: 1 # DOWNLOAD_CONCURRENCY, max 255 upload_concurrency: 1 # UPLOAD_CONCURRENCY, max 255 restore_schema_on_cluster: "" # RESTORE_SCHEMA_ON_CLUSTER, execute all schema related SQL queryes with `ON CLUSTER` clause as Distributed DDL, look to `system.clusters` table for proper cluster name upload_by_part: true # UPLOAD_BY_PART download_by_part: true # DOWNLOAD_BY_PART clickhouse: username: default # CLICKHOUSE_USERNAME password: "" # CLICKHOUSE_PASSWORD host: localhost # CLICKHOUSE_HOST port: 9000 # CLICKHOUSE_PORT, don't use 8123, clickhouse-backup doesn't support HTTP protocol disk_mapping: {} # CLICKHOUSE_DISK_MAPPING, use it if your system.disks on restored servers not the same with system.disks on server where backup was created skip_tables: # CLICKHOUSE_SKIP_TABLES - system.* - INFORMATION_SCHEMA.* - information_schema.* timeout: 5m # CLICKHOUSE_TIMEOUT freeze_by_part: false # CLICKHOUSE_FREEZE_BY_PART secure: false # CLICKHOUSE_SECURE, use SSL encryption for
connect
skip_verify: false # CLICKHOUSE_SKIP_VERIFY sync_replicated_tables: true # CLICKHOUSE_SYNC_REPLICATED_TABLES log_sql_queries: true # CLICKHOUSE_LOG_SQL_QUERIES, enable log clickhouse-backup SQL queries on `system.query_log` table inside clickhouse-server debug: false # CLICKHOUSE_DEBUG config_dir: "/etc/clickhouse-server" # CLICKHOUSE_CONFIG_DIR restart_command: "systemctl restart clickhouse-server" # CLICKHOUSE_RESTART_COMMAND, this command use when you try to restore with --rbac or --config options ignore_not_exists_error_during_freeze: true # CLICKHOUSE_IGNORE_NOT_EXISTS_ERROR_DURING_FREEZE, allow avoiding backup failures when you often CREATE / DROP tables and databases during backup creation, clickhouse-backup will ignore `code: 60` and `code: 81` errors during execute `ALTER TABLE ... FREEZE` azblob: endpoint_suffix: "core.windows.net" # AZBLOB_ENDPOINT_SUFFIX account_name: "" # AZBLOB_ACCOUNT_NAME account_key: "" # AZBLOB_ACCOUNT_KEY sas: "" # AZBLOB_SAS use_managed_identity: false # AZBLOB_USE_MANAGED_IDENTITY container: "" # AZBLOB_CONTAINER path: "" # AZBLOB_PATH compression_level: 1 # AZBLOB_COMPRESSION_LEVEL compression_format: tar # AZBLOB_COMPRESSION_FORMAT sse_key: "" # AZBLOB_SSE_KEY buffer_size: 0 # AZBLOB_BUFFER_SIZE, if less or eq 0 then calculated as max_file_size / 10000, between 2Mb and 4Mb max_buffers: 3 # AZBLOB_MAX_BUFFERS s3: access_key: "" # S3_ACCESS_KEY secret_key: "" # S3_SECRET_KEY bucket: "" # S3_BUCKET endpoint: "" # S3_ENDPOINT region: us-east-1 # S3_REGION acl: private # S3_ACL assume_role_arn: "" # S3_ASSUME_ROLE_ARN force_path_style: false # S3_FORCE_PATH_STYLE path: "" # S3_PATH disable_ssl: false # S3_DISABLE_SSL compression_level: 1 # S3_COMPRESSION_LEVEL compression_format: tar # S3_COMPRESSION_FORMAT sse: "" # S3_SSE, empty (default), AES256, or aws:kms disable_cert_verification: false . # S3_DISABLE_CERT_VERIFICATION storage_class: STANDARD # S3_STORAGE_CLASS concurrency: 1 # S3_CONCURRENCY part_size: 0 # S3_PART_SIZE, if less or eq 0 then calculated as max_file_size / 10000 debug: false # S3_DEBUG gcs: credentials_file: "" # GCS_CREDENTIALS_FILE credentials_json: "" # GCS_CREDENTIALS_JSON bucket: "" # GCS_BUCKET path: "" # GCS_PATH compression_level: 1 # GCS_COMPRESSION_LEVEL compression_format: tar # GCS_COMPRESSION_FORMAT debug: false # GCS_DEBUG cos: url: "" # COS_URL timeout: 2m # COS_TIMEOUT secret_id: "" # COS_SECRET_ID secret_key: "" # COS_SECRET_KEY path: "" # COS_PATH compression_format: tar # COS_COMPRESSION_FORMAT compression_level: 1 # COS_COMPRESSION_LEVEL ftp: address: "" # FTP_ADDRESS timeout: 2m # FTP_TIMEOUT username: "" # FTP_USERNAME password: "" # FTP_PASSWORD tls: false # FTP_TLS path: "" # FTP_PATH compression_format: tar # FTP_COMPRESSION_FORMAT compression_level: 1 # FTP_COMPRESSION_LEVEL debug: false # FTP_DEBUG sftp: address: "" # SFTP_ADDRESS username: "" # SFTP_USERNAME password: "" # SFTP_PASSWORD key: "" # SFTP_KEY path: "" # SFTP_PATH concurrency: 1 # SFTP_CONCURRENCY compression_format: tar # SFTP_COMPRESSION_FORMAT compression_level: 1 # SFTP_COMPRESSION_LEVEL debug: false # SFTP_DEBUG api: listen: "localhost:7171" # API_LISTEN enable_metrics: true # API_ENABLE_METRICS enable_pprof: false # API_ENABLE_PPROF username: "" # API_USERNAME, basic authorization for API endpoint password: "" # API_PASSWORD secure: false # API_SECURE, use TLS for listen API socket certificate_file: "" # API_CERTIFICATE_FILE private_key_file: "" # API_PRIVATE_KEY_FILE create_integration_tables: false # API_CREATE_INTEGRATION_TABLES allow_parallel: false # API_ALLOW_PARALLEL, could allocate much memory and spawn go-routines, don't enable it if you not sure
  • Ensure configuration under clickhouse and general section of the configuration file. The rest are not mandatory.
  • If automated remote upload functionality is needed, the appropriate section needs to be filled in: sftp, ftp, s3, GCS, AZBlob etc.
  • The following command can be run:
sh <path-to-cllickhouse-backup-dir>/bin/clickhouse-backup create -C <path to config.ini>
  • The following is the list of possible commands which can be executed:
COMMANDS: tables Print list of tables create Create new backup create_remote Create and upload upload Upload backup to remote storage list Print list of backups download Download backup from remote storage restore Create schema and restore data from backup restore_remote Download and restore delete Delete specific backup default-config Print default config print-config Print current config clean Remove data in 'shadow' folder from all `path` folders available from `system.disks` server Run API server help, h Shows a list of commands or help for one command

Backing up and restoring Kafka

  • Backup zookeeper state data
- Go to file
kafka/config/zookeeper.properties
- Copy location of dataDir property (typically, /tmp/zookeeper)
- Run the following command:
tar -czf /home/kafka/zookeeper-backup.tar.gz /tmp/zookeeper/*
  • Backup kafka topics and messages
- Go to the file kafka/config/server.properties
- Copy location of log.dirs (typically, /tmp/kafka-logs)
- Stop Kafka:
sudo systemctl stop kafka
- Login as Kafka user:
sudo -iu kafka
- Run the following command:
tar -czf /home/kafka/kafka-backup.tar.gz /tmp/kafka-logs/*
  • Restore Zookeeper
- sudo systemctl stop kafka
- sudo systemctl stop zookeeper
- sudo -iu kafka
- rm -r /tmp/zookeeper/*
- tar -C /tmp/zookeeper -xzf /home/kafka/zookeeper-backup.tar.gz
--strip-components 2
  • Restore Kafka
- rm -r /tmp/kafka-logs/*
- tar -C /tmp/kafka-logs -xzf /home/kafka/kafka-backup.tar.gz --strip-components 2
- sudo systemctl start kafka
- sudo systemctl start zookeeper
  • Verification of Restoration
- ~/kafka/bin/kafka-console-consumer.sh --bootstrap-server localhost:9092 --topic
BackupTopic --from-beginning

Backing up and restoring Redis

Redis provides an in-built command to save a backup.
  • Install redis-cli using
sudo apt install redis-cli
  • The following command takes a backup of the redis-server:
echo save | redis-cli -u redis://<user>:<pass>@<host>:<port> >> /tmp/redis-backup.log
  • This will save the backup as dump.rdb within
/var/lib/redis
Restoration can be done in the following way:
  • Locate the redis data directory, typically:
/var/lib/redis
  • Move the dump.rdb file into this folder
  • Start redis server
  • This will ensure that data is restored automatically
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